Mastering the Art of Legal AI Prompting: The 3Ps Framework

Prompts can range from a single word to a whole paragraph, depending on what the user is trying to achieve. LLMs use the information in the prompt as a basis for generating their response, so the quality and clarity of the prompt can significantly influence the answer.

Careful prompt design is key in instructing the LLM to produce the desired output. Vague prompts lead to confusion, but clear, detailed prompts elicit outstanding results. Framing prompts using the AI’s language gets the desired responses.

The 3Ps approach provides a structured way to guide AI systems through effective prompting. It consists of:

PROMPT: This is the core instruction provided to the AI detailing exactly what you want it to do. A properly engineered prompt includes 

  • clarity, 
  • specificity, 
  • examples, 
  • constraints, and 
  • ample context to guide the system. 

The prompt is where you ask the AI for what you need, whether it’s a legal summary, analysis, document draft, or other output. An effective prompt maximizes accuracy. Combining thoughtful priming, persona setting, and a meticulously crafted prompt allows prompting at an expert level to get the most out of legal AI systems.

PRIMING: Priming involves setting the stage and establishing the necessary context for the AI. Imagine you need to brief a junior lawyer on a case’s background before they can work on it; explaining the goals, facts, and history allows them to dive in effectively. Similarly, priming an AI lays the groundwork for success. Examples of priming include 

  • summarizing documents the AI needs to read for context, 
  • explaining the business objectives, client needs, or legal issues involved, or 
  • providing any required definitions or domain knowledge.

PERSONA: You can specify a persona if you want the AI to adopt a specific perspective. This puts the AI in a certain mindset, similar to how lawyers think differently depending on their role, like prosecution vs. defense attorneys. Examples of persons include:

  • patent lawyer (frames responses from a patent law point of view), 
  • plaintiff’s attorney (approaches issues from a plaintiff-favouring stance), and 
  • criminal prosecutor (considers implications in building a case against the accused).

Source: JD Spura






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